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Cleansweep RN

Betty Newman was born in 1924 at Lowell, Ohio, United States of America. In 1947 she received RN Diploma from Peoples Hospital School of Nursing, Akron, Ohio. She then moved to California and gained experience as a hospital, staff, and head nurse; school nurse and industrial nurse; and as a clinical instructor in medical-surgical, critical care and communicable disease nursing. In 1957 Dr. Newman attended the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) with double major in psychology and public health. She received BS in nursing from UCLA. In 1966 she received Masters Degree in Mental Health, Public Health Consultation from UCLA. The Newman Systems Model was originally developed in 1970 at the University of California, Los Angeles, by Betty Newman, Ph.D., RN. The model was developed by Dr. Newman as a way to teach an introductory nursing course to nursing students. The goal of the model was to provide a holistic overview of the physiological, psychological, socio-cultural, and developmental aspects of human beings. Newman’s model focuses on the person as a complete system, the subparts of which are interrelated physiological, psychological, socio-cultural, spiritual, and developmental factors.

Newman's System Model

The large circle in the center is the focal point and includes the symbol for Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Physiological, socio-cultural, developmental, spiritual. The concentric circles around the center signify client (brown triangle with a circle on top), environment (blue clouds and yellow circle sunshine), health (red crosses), and nursing (pink hearts). The layers, usually represented by concentric circle, consist of the central core, lines of resistance, lines of normal defence, and lines of flexible defence. The basic core structure is comprised of survival mechanisms including: organ function, temperature control, genetic structure, response patterns, ego, and what Newman terms known and commonalities. Lines of resistance and two lines of defence protect this core. The person may in fact be an individual, a family, a group, or a community in Newman’s model. The person, with a core of basic structures, is seen as being in constant, dynamic interaction with the environment. Around the basic core structures are lines of defence and resistance. The person is seen as being in a state of constant change and-as an open system-in reciprocal interaction with the environment.

Elements of Newman’s Theory

Person - The person is a layered multidimensional being. Each layer consists of five person variables or subsystems: Physical/Physiological, Psychological, Socio-cultural, Developmental and Spiritual

Environment - The environment is seen to be the totality of the internal and external forces which surround a person and with which they interact at any given time. These forces include the intrapersonal, interpersonal and extra personal stressors which can affect the person's normal line of defence and so can affect the stability of the system.

  1. The internal environment exists within the client system.
  2. The external environment exists outside the client system.
  3. Newman also identified a created environment which is an environment that is created and developed unconsciously by the client and is symbolic of system wholeness.

Health - Newman sees health as being equated with wellness. She defines health/wellness as "the condition in which all parts and subparts (variables) are in harmony with the whole of the client (Newman, 1995)". As the person is in a constant interaction with the environment, the state of wellness (and by implication any other state) is in dynamic equilibrium, rather than in any kind of steady state. Newman proposes a wellness-illness continuum, with the person's position on that continuum being influenced by their interaction with the variables and the stressors they encounter. The client system moves toward illness and death when more energy is needed than is available. The client system moves toward wellness when more energy is available than is needed.

Nursing - Newman sees nursing as a unique profession that is concerned with all of the variables which influence the response a person might have to a stressor. The person is seen as a whole, and it is the task of nursing to address the whole person. Neuman defines nursing as actions which assist individuals, families and groups to maintain a maximum level of wellness, and the primary aim is stability of the patient/client system, through nursing interventions to reduce stressors. Neuman states that, because the nurse's perception will influence the care given, then not only must the patient/client's perceptions be assessed, but so must those of the caregiver (nurse). The role of the nurse is seen in terms of degrees of reaction to stressors, and the use of primary, secondary and tertiary interventions.

Newman's 3 stage nursing process:

  1. Nursing Diagnosis - based of necessity in a thorough assessment, and with consideration given to five variables in three stressor areas.
  2. Nursing Goals - these must be negotiated with the patient, and take account of patient's and nurse's perceptions of variance from wellness
  3. Nursing Outcomes - considered in relation to five variables, and achieved through primary, secondary and tertiary interventions.
2 Responses
  1. anesha Says:

    Hi Nice Blog . This entirely Web-delivered application offers an unparalleled understanding of human endocrine system . The Visible Body includes 3D models of over 1,700 anatomical structures, including all major organs and systems of the human body.

  2. Anonymous Says:

    I`m a nursing school student.this web site,let me understanded the Neuman Systems model ,because the picture very clearer and easier ,I ues it in my Betty Neuman theorist report.My teacher want to know the picture come from?
    can you help me ?
    Is it issue in any literature ?
    ThankS for your patient .
    Sorry my english very poor.
    student shuan in Taiwan .

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